Apple Rootstock
Budagovsky 9 (B9) A cross between M 8 and Red Standard, a hardy rootstock of
Russian origin. A full dwarf rootstock producing a tree approximately 30-40% the
size of a seedling depending on cultivator vigor and with the same vigor as M 9.
Requires staking or other support to keep anchored. Extremely cold hardy and
resistant to collar rot. Mildly resistant to powdery mildew and scab, Superior Winter
hardiness has increased grower awareness of this smaller than M9 size
rootstock. Developed at the Michuinsk College of Agriculture in Russia.

M9 (NAKB 337) This dwarfing rootstock, ideal for high density plantings, produces
a tree approximately 30-35% the size of a seedling. M9-337 performs similar to
EMLA 9 cropping early with large fruit size. Best production occurs on fertile well
drained soils with consistent moisture. Brittle roots and poor anchorage
necessitate tree support.

Geneva ® 11 (G11) A cross of M 26 x Robusta 5 hybrid, G 11 is similar in vigor to
EMLA 26. Like EMLA 26 trees grown on G 11 should be supported. Trees of this
variety are extremely precocious, productive and more resistant to woolly aphid tan
EMLA 26. G 11 is also somewhat resistant to fireblight and collar rot. G 11 also
resists suckering.

Geneva ® 41 (G.41) Geneva 41 resulted from a cross between M.27 and Robusta
5 and was introduced by the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station,
Geneva, New York. Geneva 41 and has been tested as CG 3041 and is a full
dwarf, similar in size to M.9 NAKBT337. It is highly resistant to fire blight and
Phytophthora, and in initial tests it appears to be tolerant of replant disease. It is
being tested in the 2003 NC-140 trial at 12 locations with Golden Delicious as the
scion cultivar. After five years, it produces trees similar in size to M.9, but it has
higher yield efficiency and produces few root suckers.



Nic 29® (RN 29 cv.) is a Malling 9 type rootstock. It usually exhibits a better root
system than Malling 9. Of the various types of Malling 9, Nic 29®  exhibits stronger
vigor, yet is still a full dwarf. Trees grown on this root require support. The rootstock
is both precocious and productive, usually fruiting in second or third leaf. Fire blight
susceptibility is similar to other M 9 strains. Recommended for high density
plantings.

T337 A M9 sub clone from the Netherlands. Only slightly less vigorous than M9 and
resistant to collar rot.

Vineland 1 (V.1) A fire blight resistant rootstock from Ontario, Canada  Usually
more vigorous than M26 and very winter hardy, more so than B9.

M9 (Pajam #2) This dwarfing rootstock, of French Origin Produces an increase in
productivity of 10-20%. It appears to have better compatibility with grafted varieties.
Growing trials indicate Pajam 2 gives slightly better fruit size, improved color and
earlier maturity. Winter hardiness appears to be similar to other M9 Rootstock.

M9 (NIC®29) This dwarfing rootstock, of Belgium origin, produces a tree similar in
size and characteristics to M9-337 with slightly more vigor. A difference, however,
can be seen in the root zone. The generally brittle roots of M9-337 are replaced
with a vibrant and expansive root system.  This allows for an increased survival
rate in orchard plantings. Tree support is required.

Malling 9 (M 9) This is considered to be the full dwarf tree. M 9 should be planted
on fertile well-drained soil and requires support. A tree on this root is about 30-35
percent in size compared to a standard tree. In our own orchards, we have had very
early and heavy production from M 9 rooted trees. M 9 may not be as winter hardy
as those on other dwarfing roots. It can be planted close in double rows.

M-9 / EMLA 111 INTERSTEM The interstem M-9 / EMLA 111 produces intermediate
trees similar to EMLA 26. Advantages include a well anchored, collar rot resistant
EMLA 111 tree, with the dwarfing and precocity of the M-9 interstem. Combines the
dwarfing effect and early bearing of an M9 interstem piece with the well anchored,
collar rot resistant MM111.  Good for less than perfect soil conditions.  Temporary
stake recommended.

Supporter 4 TM A cross of M 9 x M 4, Supporter 4™ is a dwarfing apple rootstock
similar in vigor to EMLA 26. Anchorage is similar to EMLA 26, and trees on this root
should be grown with some sort of support structure. The rootstock is relatively
frost resistant. In tests, Supporter 4™ showed better efficiency than both EMLA 26
and EMLA 106.

EMLA 26  (M26) is considered to be smaller than a half size tree. It is about 40 to
45 percent of a standard tree, needs some support in early years, but could be self-
supporting in later years. EMLA 26 is very early and heavy bearing. This rootstock is
very adaptable for close plantings and double rows.  Provides better anchorage
than M9, however it is still shallow rooted and subject to drought stress. EMLA 26
is more precocious than EMLA 7 but tends to be less vigorous. Moderately
susceptible to Crown Rot and susceptible to Fireblight. Support is recommended.

Geneva 935®  One of the newest introductions.  Reportedly very fire-blight resistant
and producing a tree as productive as M9.  Very winter hardy and has shown
superior performance in most trials.  In the size range of EMLA 26--- so almost in
the semi-dwarf range class, but support is highly recommended because of its
precocity and potential heavy cropping issues.  Very limited production of this
rootstock make at this time make it hard to come by.

Vineland 1 (V1)
The Vineland series of apple rootstocks originated as open-
pollinated hybrids of ‘Kerr’ crabapples and M.9 rootstock and were selected at the
Horticultural Experiment Station at Vineland, Ontario, Canada in 1958. According to
information from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, V.1 is in
the M.26 size class, and yield and yield efficiency are usually greater than M.26. V.1
is cold hardy and somewhat resistant to fireblight. V.1 was included in the 1994
NC-140 dwarf apple rootstock trial at 25 locations in North America. After 10 years
trees on V.1 were similar in

EMLA 7 (M7) A tree on this rootstock will be 50 to 60 percent smaller than a
standard tree.  EMLA 7 does well on deep fertile soils vs. light, sandy soils. It is
Winter hardy and fairly well anchored, needing little if any support in early years
only. EMLA 7 is very winter hardy. It is susceptible to suckering. EMLA 7 is
extremely tolerant to fire blight and moderately resistant to Crown Rot.

Geneva 30 (G 30) This rootstock was developed at the Cornell University breeding
program by Dr. Jim Cummings. It makes a tree similar in size to EMLA 7. It is more
fireblight resistant than EMLA 7 and produces trees that are more precocious than  
trees grown on EMLA 7.

EMLA 106 This semi-dwarfing rootstock produces a tree approximately 65-75%
the size of a seedling. EMLA 106 is an excellent choice for spur-type Red Delicious
varieties. It has heavy cropping potential with moderate vigor. Does well in a wide
range of temperatures and has good anchorage. It does not sucker and it is
resistant to Woolly Apple Aphid but very susceptible to Collar Rot. Dry sandy soils
may reduce vigor to a size less than EMLA 7 and fertile soils may produce trees of
EMLA 111 size. It should be planted on well drained soil as it is susceptible to
crown rot.

EMLA 111 produces a tree about 75-85% the size of a standard tree.  It is an
outstanding choice for spur-type red delicious varieties. It has excellent anchorage
with no staking required. Vigorous scion varieties and better soils may grow to
three-quarter size or larger. EMLA 111 is a good producing rootstock, is well
anchored and tolerant of drought conditions. Resistant to Woolly Apply Aphid. Few
losses have been seen to Crown Rot and it is average in resisting Fireblight. It is
widely adapted to most soil conditions.

Budagovsky (B 118) A vigorous, semi-dwarf rootstock that produces trees that is
90% the size of a seedling  . It is a precocious rootstock with good yield efficiency
that requires support. It is popular as a winter hardy rootstock for colder growing
regions. It is reported to have withstood temperatures of -16
degrees C with no root damage. It is recommended for spur-type varieties on poor,
dry, or sandy regions B118 is from the same Russian program that create B9.
Stan Peterson Fruit Tree Sales
2574 S. Benedict Road
Ludington, MI  49431
Toll Free 1-888-333-1464
Fax 231-843-4113
Email:  stan@fruit-treesales.com
Apple Rootstock