Apple Rootstock
Budagovsky 9 (B9) A cross between M 8 and Red Standard, a hardy rootstock of
Russian origin. A full dwarf rootstock producing a tree approximately 30-40% the
size of a seedling depending on cultivator vigor and with the same vigor as M 9.
Requires staking or other support to keep anchored. Extremely cold hardy and
resistant to collar rot. Mildly resistant to powdery mildew and scab, Superior Winter
hardiness has increased grower awareness of this smaller than M9 size
rootstock. Developed at the Michuinsk College of Agriculture in Russia.

Budagovsky 10 (B10) A very cold hardy rootstock that is resistant to fire blight and
easy to propagate with few side shoots, Bud 10 has not yet been widely used in
Washington. Bud 10 is highly susceptible to replant disease, which means it
doesn’t provide much improvement over bigger M.9 clones. It’s a rootstock
researchers are still learning about in the Northwest.

Budagovsky (B 118) A vigorous, semi-dwarf rootstock that produces trees that is
90% the size of a seedling  . It is a precocious rootstock with good yield efficiency
that requires support. It is popular as a winter hardy rootstock for colder growing
regions. It is reported to have withstood temperatures of -16
degrees C with no root damage. It is recommended for spur-type varieties on
poor, dry, or sandy regions B118 is from the same Russian program that create
B9.

EMLA 26  (M26) is considered to be smaller than a half size tree. It is about 40 to
45 percent of a standard tree, needs some support in early years, but could be
self-supporting in later years. EMLA 26 is very early and heavy bearing. This
rootstock is very adaptable for close plantings and double rows.  Provides better
anchorage than M9, however it is still shallow rooted and subject to drought
stress. EMLA 26 is more precocious than EMLA 7 but tends to be less vigorous.
Moderately susceptible to Crown Rot and susceptible to Fireblight. Support is
recommended.

EMLA 7 (M7) A tree on this rootstock will be 50 to 60 percent smaller than a
standard tree.  EMLA 7 does well on deep fertile soils vs. light, sandy soils. It is
Winter hardy and fairly well anchored, needing little if any support in early years
only. EMLA 7 is very winter hardy. It is susceptible to suckering. EMLA 7 is
extremely tolerant to fire blight and moderately resistant to Crown Rot.

EMLA 106 (M106) This semi-dwarfing rootstock produces a tree approximately 65-
75% the size of a seedling. EMLA 106 is an excellent choice for spur-type Red
Delicious varieties. It has heavy cropping potential with moderate vigor. Does well
in a wide range of temperatures and has good anchorage. It does not sucker and
it is resistant to Woolly Apple Aphid but very susceptible to Collar Rot. Dry sandy
soils may reduce vigor to a size less than EMLA 7 and fertile soils may produce
trees of EMLA 111 size. It should be planted on well drained soil as it is
susceptible to crown rot.

EMLA 111  (M111) produces a tree about 75-85% the size of a standard tree.  It is
an outstanding choice for spur-type red delicious varieties. It has excellent
anchorage with no staking required. Vigorous scion varieties and better soils may
grow to three-quarter size or larger. EMLA 111 is a good producing rootstock, is
well anchored and tolerant of drought conditions. Resistant to Woolly Apply Aphid.
Few losses have been seen to Crown Rot and it is average in resisting Fireblight.
It is widely adapted to most soil conditions.

Geneva ® 11 (G11) A cross of M 26 x Robusta 5 hybrid, G 11 is similar in vigor to
EMLA 26. Like EMLA 26 trees grown on G 11 should be supported. Trees of this
variety are extremely precocious, productive and more resistant to woolly aphid tan
EMLA 26. G 11 is also somewhat resistant to fireblight and collar rot. G 11 also
resists suckering.

Geneva®  16™ (G16)  This exciting new rootstock is one of several in a series of
Fireblight resistant rootstocks out of Cornell University. Size of the tree is in-
between M9 and M26. It is tolerant to Collar Rot and immune to Scab. It is
susceptible to Woolly Apple Aphid and Powdery Mildew. Geneva 16 is non-brittle,
well anchored, and sucker-free. Trees are precocious and productive. Tree
support is recommended.

Geneva 30® (G 30) This rootstock was developed at the Cornell University
breeding program by Dr. Jim Cummings. It makes a tree similar in size to EMLA 7.
It is more fireblight resistant than EMLA 7 and produces trees that are more
precocious than  trees grown on EMLA 7.

Geneva ® 41 (G.41) Geneva 41 resulted from a cross between M.27 and Robusta
5 and was introduced by the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station,
Geneva, New York. Geneva 41 and has been tested as CG 3041 and is a full
dwarf, similar in size to M.9 NAKBT337. It is highly resistant to fire blight and
Phytophthora, and in initial tests it appears to be tolerant of replant disease. It is
being tested in the 2003 NC-140 trial at 12 locations with Golden Delicious as the
scion cultivar. After five years, it produces trees similar in size to M.9, but it has
higher yield efficiency and produces few root suckers.
M9 (NAKB 337) This dwarfing rootstock, ideal for high density plantings, produces
a tree approximately 30-35% the size of a seedling. M9-337 performs similar to
EMLA 9 cropping early with large fruit size. Best production occurs on fertile well
drained soils with consistent moisture. Brittle roots and poor anchorage
necessitate tree support.

Geneva®  210 (G210) Another high-performing Geneva clone, G.210 has done the
best at an unfumigated research replant site in Wapato, Washington. G210 has
shown excellent replant tolerance so far (one Washington planting in Wapato).
Growers should consider this rootstock in trial quantities (+/- 100 trees) to further
evaluate its potential. Eastern data show G.210 as a M.7 size canopy. The Wapato
data, with many trees in the plots, strongly show it is not as big as G.30 which is ‘M.
26 class’ in Washington State. Tree size is equivalent to large M.9 in Wapato with
Gala as scion.  Some limited availability now.

Geneva®  214 (G214) One of the high-performing Geneva rootstocks, G.214 is the
first of the Genevas known for being very replant tolerant. There have been a
number of issues getting it into production — specifically, identity mistakes in
propagation — but G.214 is finally headed to the stool beds. Washington trials
have shown great stands with good transplant. The first group of 214 is available
at some nurseries this year in limited quantity.

Geneva®  890 (G.890) will probably be competitive with G.41 in terms of tree
availability and volume. Bitter pit is a concern, due to its high vigor, but G.890
seems to be an excellent replacement tree in difficult soils. The rootstock has
shined in extremely harsh replant areas.

Geneva 935® (G935) Reportedly very fire-blight resistant and producing a tree as
productive as M9.  Very winter hardy and has shown superior performance in most
trials.  In the size range of EMLA 26--- so almost in the semi-dwarf range class, but
support is highly recommended because of its precocity and potential heavy
cropping issues.  

Malling 9 (M 9) This is considered to be the full dwarf tree. M 9 should be planted
on fertile well-drained soil and requires support. A tree on this root is about 30-35
percent in size compared to a standard tree. In our own orchards, we have had
very early and heavy production from M 9 rooted trees. M 9 may not be as winter
hardy as those on other dwarfing roots. It can be planted close in double rows.

Malling 9 - M9 (NAKB 337) This dwarfing rootstock, ideal for high density
plantings, produces a tree approximately 30-35% the size of a seedling. M9-337
performs similar to EMLA 9 cropping early with large fruit size. Best production
occurs on fertile well drained soils with consistent moisture. Brittle roots and poor
anchorage necessitate tree support.


Malling 9 - M9 (NIC®29) This dwarfing rootstock, of Belgium origin, produces a
tree similar in size and characteristics to M9-337 with slightly more vigor. A
difference, however, can be seen in the root zone. The generally brittle roots of M9-
337 are replaced with a vibrant and expansive root system.  This allows for an
increased survival rate in orchard plantings. Tree support is required.

Malling 9 - M9 (Pajam #2) This dwarfing rootstock, of French Origin Produces an
increase in productivity of 10-20%. It appears to have better compatibility with
grafted varieties. Growing trials indicate Pajam 2 gives slightly better fruit size,
improved color and earlier maturity. Winter hardiness appears to be similar to
other M9 Rootstock.

M-9 / EMLA 111 INTERSTEM The interstem M-9 / EMLA 111 produces intermediate
trees similar to EMLA 26. Advantages include a well anchored, collar rot resistant
EMLA 111 tree, with the dwarfing and precocity of the M-9 interstem. Combines the
dwarfing effect and early bearing of an M9 interstem piece with the well anchored,
collar rot resistant MM111.  Good for less than perfect soil conditions.  Temporary
stake recommended.


Nicolai 29 - Nic 29® (RN 29 cv.)
is a Malling 9 type rootstock. It usually exhibits a
better root system than Malling 9. Of the various types of Malling 9, Nic 29®  
exhibits stronger vigor, yet is still a full dwarf. Trees grown on this root require
support. The rootstock is both precocious and productive, usually fruiting in
second or third leaf. Fire blight susceptibility is similar to other M 9 strains.
Recommended for high density plantings.

T337 A M9 sub clone from the Netherlands. Only slightly less vigorous than M9
and resistant to collar rot.


Vineland 1 (V1) The Vineland series of apple rootstocks originated as open-
pollinated hybrids of ‘Kerr’ crabapples and M.9 rootstock and were selected at the
Horticultural Experiment Station at Vineland, Ontario, Canada in 1958. According to
information from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, V.1 is in
the M.26 size class, and yield and yield efficiency are usually greater than M.26. V.1
is cold hardy and somewhat resistant to fireblight. V.1 was included in the 1994
NC-140 dwarf apple rootstock trial at 25 locations in North America. After 10 years
trees on V.1 were similar in size to M.26 EMLA and tree survival was excellent.
Trees on V.1 produced few rootsuckers and burrknots and had cumulative yield
and yield efficiency similar to M.26 EMLA.

Stan Peterson Fruit Tree Sales
2574 S. Benedict Road
Ludington, MI  49431
Toll Free 1-888-333-1464
Fax 231-843-4113
Email:  stan@fruit-treesales.com
Apple Rootstock